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Hydroxychloroquine as pre-exposure prophylaxis against COVID-19 in health-care workers: A single-center experience
Sheila Samanta Mathai, Vineet Behera, Vivek Hande
November 2020, 22(3):98-104
Background: Health-care workers (HCWs) are at high risk of acquiring COVID-19. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) possesses in vitro antiviral activity and inhibits viral replication of coronavirus in cell cultures. The national task force for COVID-19 in India recommended the use of HCQ prophylaxis against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in HCWs. Methodology: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a mixed tertiary care facility to find the incidence and clinical profile of COVID-19 in HCWs between April 2020 and June 2020, who were advised preexposure prophylaxis with HCQ, at the start of the pandemic. Details of HCQ usage were collected using an online questionnaire form. The clinical profile, treatment, and outcome of COVID-19-positive HCWs were also studied. Results: We included 604 HCWs, of which 491 (81.2%) had taken adequate HCQ prophylaxis while 113 (18.7%) did not take adequate HCQ, 443 (73.3%) had high-risk COVID-19 exposure, and 32 HCWs (5.1% of the total) were COVID-19 positive. There were 10 COVID-19 cases (2.1%) among HCWs taking HCQ while 22 (19.4%) cases occurred in HCQ not compliant HCWs, with a relative risk of 0.1046 (95% confidence interval: 0.0510–0.2147, P< 0.0001), indicating a reduced risk of COVID-19 among HCWs taking HCQ prophylaxis. Among the noncompliant cases, 14 (43.7%) never took HCQ, 4 (12.5%) took HCQ but had poor compliance, and 4 (12.5%) stopped HCQ prematurely. Most (91.7%) COVID-19-positive HCWs were asymptomatic or had mild symptoms, moderate symptoms were seen in 3 (9.3%), and there were no severe cases or deaths. Conclusions: The use of HCQ as preexposure prophylaxis in HCWs was associated with reduced risk of COVID-19, suggesting its role as an effective chemoprophylactic agent.
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Going viral – Covid-19 impact assessment: A perspective beyond clinical practice
Saurabh Bobdey, Sougat Ray
January-June 2020, 22(1):9-12
In the realm of infectious diseases, a global outbreak is a worst-case scenario. In the past, outbreaks such as plague, Spanish flu, severe acute respiratory syndrome, and H1N1 (swine flu) have caused great human suffering. The novel coronavirus, christened as Covid-19, is a zoonotic disease which originated from the Wuhan province in China and spread like wildfire killing people and devastating the global economy. Mammoth efforts are still on to control this viral strain from further spread. Cities have been blocked, air travel banned, ships have been quarantined, and panic-stricken people have been evacuated from China. As Covid-19 continues to ravage countries across the globe, this article is an effort to provide an overview of the impact of Covid-19 and tickle wits of intellectuals to think how easily a nanometer organism can virtually bring down superpowers of the world.
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Efficacy of different types of phototherapy units on neonatal hyperbilirubinemia
Krishna M Adhikari, Sheila S Mathai, Sathya M Moorthy, Naveen Chawla, Sandeep Dhingra
July-December 2017, 19(2):99-102
Context: Phototherapy is the mainstay of treatment for about 3% of neonates in India who develop significant jaundice in phototherapy range. New devices have been introduced in the market over the past few years. Aims: To compare the efficacy of three types of phototherapy machines, namely Blue and White, Compact Fluorescent Lamp, and Light Emitting Diode type. Settings and Design: A non-randomized prospective interventional study conducted in a tertiary care hospital of Western India. Material and Methods: Ninety neonates with phototherapy range hyperbilirubinemia were assigned into three groups of 30 neonates each to receive phototherapy using one of the three types of phototherapy machines. Need for exchange transfusion, total serum bilirubin (TSB) at 24 hours post-phototherapy and side effect profile were recorded. Decision to stop phototherapy was based on acceptable reduction of serum bilirubin to below phototherapy range. Statistical analysis used: Medcalc® Version Software was utilised. Comparison of mean TSB was done using one way ANOVA. P-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Baseline parameters, TSB at 24 hour post-phototherapy and at the point of stopping phototherapy in the three groups was not significantly different. None of the babies required exchange transfusion or stopping of therapy. Transient rash was the most commonly observed side effect. Conclusions: The three types of phototherapy equipment studied were comparable in efficacy as measured by need for exchange transfusion and mean TSB values at 24 hrs post-phototherapy. The side effect profile was similar and was not significant enough to stop phototherapy.
  6,551 329 1
Role of “bladder care bundle” and “infection control nurse” in reducing catheter-associated urinary tract infection in a peripheral hospital
Parli Raghavan Ravi, MC Joshi
July-December 2018, 20(2):116-121
Background: Care bundles are an effective means of reducing catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) when they are implemented with high impact interventions. Care bundle approach only works when every element of the bundle is implemented for every appropriate patient, every time and with high impact. Aim: This study aims to study the efficacy of CAUTI Care Bundle and of infection control nurse (ICN) in reducing the incidence of CAUTI in a zonal hospital. Materials and Methods: The study was with an initial baseline phase (observational) of 8 months followed by an intervention Phase of 21 months. The intervention phase was further divided into intervention Phase I (8 months) and intervention Phase II (13 months). Intervention Phase I included a multidimensional approach of education and training of health-care staff for catheter management and prevention of CAUTI and implementation of catheter care bundle. In intervention Phase II education of health-care workers and implementation of catheter care bundle was done under constant supervision and guidance of ICN. Results: We recorded a total of 834 urinary catheter days: 309 in baseline phase, 314 in intervention Phase I, and 211 in intervention Phase II. It was found that the incidence rate of CAUTI, measured as episodes per 1000 catheter days is 64.72 in baseline phase, 25.47 in intervention Phase I, and 18.95 in intervention Phase II. The catheter care bundle approach along with education of the staff reduced the CAUTI incidence by 60.64 and when the same was applied under the constant supervision of ICN for the CAUTI reduction rate was clinically significant with 70.72. Conclusions: The catheter care bundle approach along with the education of the staff reduced the CAUTI incidence by 60.64 episodes/1000 catheter days and when the same was applied under constant supervision of ICN for the CAUTI reduction rate was clinically significant with 70.72
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War and epidemics: A chronicle of infectious diseases
Kaushik Roy, Sougat Ray
January-June 2018, 20(1):50-54
Disease transmission occurs with a perfect balance of the epidemiological triad consisting of an external agent, a susceptible host, and an environment that brings the agent and host together. Conflict situation is an ideal platform that creates this confluence of agent and host in perfect environmental conditions, for pathogens to tear through soldiers and refugees alike. Classically during armed conflicts, soldiers and displaced population get exposed to unsanitary and overcrowded barracks, trenches, refugee shelters, and concentration camps with disruptive health-care services. Many get susceptible to diseases prevalent in the relocated region and some may introduce pathogens in the native population. The earlier wartime epidemics were considered as divine interventions and wrath of God. As medicinal knowledge advanced, prevention strategies evolved from isolation and quarantine to sanitary measures against miasma and further to chemoprophylaxis and immunization against the pathogen. The advent of antivector chemicals and antibiotics revolutionized the control of epidemics during the World War II. Although not infectious in origin, modern-day outbreaks are mostly health events such as posttraumatic stress disorders in postwar or war-like scenario. This article chronicles the epidemiology of the better-known wartime epidemics.
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Study of lifestyle diseases among workers of an ammunition factory
Arun Gupta, Neeti Goyal, AK Jindal, Raj Kumar
January-June 2017, 19(1):43-47
Background: Lifestyle diseases which include hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and stroke are caused by influences on the human body by the way people live their lives. This study is an effort to describe the prevalence of various lifestyle diseases; factors associated with their causation and suggest measures for improvement of the health status among the industrial workers. Materials and Methods: A total of 351 workers were included in this study. The prevalence and pattern of lifestyle diseases among industrial workers were studied. The survey had two principal components, namely, the pretested standardized questionnaire and clinical examination. Blood sugar levels were assessed by a glucometer. Results: Hypertension was the most common lifestyle disease, seen among 43.0% of workers. It was significantly related to age, socioeconomic status type 2, body mass index (BMI), and habit of tobacco chewing. Only one-fourth were aware of their blood pressure status. Other diseases brought out were diabetes type 2 mellitus (7.7%) and obesity (4%). In this study, among those with type 2 diabetes mellitus, 29.63% were not aware of their blood sugar status. Diabetes was significantly related to BMI and increased significantly with increase in age. Also, one-third of the study population was overweight. Conclusion: Lifestyle diseases were found to be the major causes of morbidity among the study participants. Hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and overweight/obesity were the common morbidities. These conditions were associated with factors such as age, socioeconomic status, BMI, and history of tobacco chewing.
  5,206 281 2
Unknown facets of “not so well-known scientist” Dr. Y Subbarow: A great scientist, who did not receive the Nobel Prize
Vasant S Dixit
July-December 2018, 20(2):141-144
Dr. Subbarow (January 12, 1895–August 08, 1948) had obtained admission to MBBS course but was awarded Licentiate of Medicine and Surgery instead of the MBBS degree. He went to the USA in October 1923 where he was admitted to the Harvard School of Tropical Medicine. After receiving a diploma from the school, he became interested in biochemistry. He discovered the function of adenosine triphosphate as an energy source in the cell. Despite the path-breaking discovery, Subbarow was denied tenure at Harvard. Subbarow felt that the giant pharmaceutical firms might offer greater scope for research than universities. Hence, in 1940, he joined the world-renowned Lederle Laboratories as Director of Research and spent the rest of his life in the USA. He would lead some of America's most important medical research during World War II. His output and contributions to human biology and medicine are seminal and phenomenal. His creativity is evident in the trail-blazing discoveries in the fields of biochemistry, nutritional science, pharmacology, microbiology, and oncology. Subbarow had craved for fame but was never in the limelight. He pushed into limelight those whose dedication most nearly matched his own. He was proud of the brilliant members of his research teams. He was quick to share successes with colleagues and was known for his acts of generosity. Subbarow said, “Victories of science are rarely won single handedly. No one man should get the (entire) credit.”
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Medical challenges of women combatants: Looking to the future
Sheila S Mathai, Ravi Kalra
January-June 2018, 20(1):1-3
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Talcum powder and photoprotection
Jandhyala Sridhar, CR Srinivas
January-June 2017, 19(1):48-50
Context: Talcum powder is a popular daily use cosmetic product in India with a high urban and rural penetration. Aim: To examine the photoprotective ability of a popular brand of talcum powder. Design: Nonrandomized controlled efficacy study. Subjects and Methods: Minimal erythema dose (MED) following narrowband ultraviolet B irradiation among ten volunteers was recorded. Sun protection factor (SPF) of talcum powder was determined by standard in vivo method. Percentages of zinc oxide in the test sample and ten other commercially available brands of talcum powder were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Statistical Analysis Used: Calculation of mean. Results: The mean MED of volunteers was 310 milli Joule (mJ) without talcum powder and 400 mJ with talcum powder. The mean SPF of talcum powder was 1.29. The percentage of zinc oxide in the test sample was estimated to be 1.5%. Conclusions: Talcum powder offers low photoprotection due to low zinc oxide content.
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Use of levamisole in children with nephrotic syndrome: A retrospective study to examine its adverse effects in children with nephrotic syndrome
Suprita Kalra, Madhuri Kanitkar, Kara Tiewsoh
July-December 2017, 19(2):87-90
Introduction: Levamisole, a synthetic imidazothiazole derivative has been used as a steroid sparing agent in children with Frequently Relapsing Nephrotic Syndrome (FRNS) and Steroid Dependent Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome (SDNS). Levamisole has been essentially considered a safe drug with minimal toxicity. We conducted this study to re-examine the safety of Levamisole in children with nephrotic syndrome and to describe the clinical profile of these children. Materials and Methods: Records of children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome between June 2014 and December 2016 were reviewed. We identified frequently relapsing or steroid dependent children between 1-18 years of age who had received Levamisole for at least six months or in whom Levamisole was started but had to be withdrawn due to some adverse events in the first 6 months. Results: 21 children were started on Levamisole in the study period. 13 (61.90%) were FRNS and remaining had a steroid dependent course. Levamisole had to be withdrawn in one child at 1 month 13 days after initiation when the child developed severe headache. Levamisole also had to be discontinued in a 9 years old girl at 13 months after initiation of therapy due to polyarticular arthralgia involving both the small and large joints. Conclusions: The use of Levamisole warrants caution in children with Nephrotic Syndrome and its efficacy needs to be balanced against its potential side effects.
  3,696 237 -
Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus infection in antenatal women in a Tertiary Care Center in Western India
Mahadevan Kumar, Mohammad Bashir Nizam, M Mugunthan
January-June 2017, 19(1):51-54
Context: Human cytomegalovirus (CMV), otherwise called human herpesvirus 5, is a member of the Herpesviridae family. Maternofetal transmission of CMV can occur during pregnancy following primary or recurrent infections in the mother. Infections in utero are associated with fetal abnormalities, intrauterine growth retardation, and intrauterine death. In India, 80%–90% of the adult population show presence of CMV antibodies; however, there are few articles showing the prevalence of CMV infection in pregnant women. Aims: The aim of this study is to assess seroprevalence of CMV infection in antenatal women. Settings and Design: This is a cross-sectional, observational study, study population: women reporting for antenatal care to the OPD at a tertiary care hospital. Subjects and Methods: Three hundred and seventy serum samples drawn from antenatal women attending OPD in a tertiary care center were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical significance was estimated by calculating “P value.” Results: Of the 370 samples tested, 83% showed the presence of CMV IgG and 9.46% were positive for CMV IgM. All those cases which were IgM positive were seropositive for CMV IgG as well. Sixteen percent of the antenatal women were both IgG and IgM negative. Conclusion: The prevalence of CMV IgG in antenatal women in this region is high. Around 16% of the women showed lack of IgG. It would be beneficial to screen pregnant women for CMV IgM antibodies is beneficial and will help guide the testing of newborns suspected to be infected with CMV in order that appropriate therapy of the infected infants can be instituted promptly and appropriate advice can be rendered on prevention of transmission.
  3,152 290 3
Food poisoning outbreak in a training establishment: A retrospective cohort study
Maramraj Kiran Kumar, Vijay Bhaskar, Sougat Ray
January-June 2017, 19(1):28-33
Background: An outbreak of food poisoning occurred among recruits in a training establishment. Investigation of outbreak was undertaken with active preventive interventions concurrently to arrest the current outbreak as well as to avoid such incidents in future. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken among all recruits, regardless of presence or absence of symptoms. The risk ratios (relative risks) and attributable risks were calculated for each food item of the suspected meal to assess the association between consumption of individual food items and subsequent illness. An environmental survey was undertaken to investigate into the course of food processing and storage facilities at trainees' galley (cookhouse) and other relevant eating establishments. Results: A total of 494 recruits reported with symptoms of gastroenteritis in a span of 3 days. Of those affected, only 9 were admitted and rest recovered with treatment on OPD basis. The overall attack rate was 22.9%. No deaths were reported. It was a classical point source, single exposure gastroenteritis outbreak. When food histories and sickness histories were analyzed, the attributable risk (24.17) and relative risk (5.11) were highest for the “Flavoured milk,” which was an outsourced item. The statistical findings were substantiated with environmental and epidemiological evidence. Conclusion: Epidemiological investigation incriminated dinner of the previous day as the meal responsible for the outbreak with flavored milk as the most attributable food item.
  2,418 295 -
Thoracic epidural analgesia for breast oncological procedures: A better alternative to general anesthesia
Parli Raghavan Ravi, Pradeep Jaiswal
July-December 2017, 19(2):91-95
Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the outcomes of the incidence of nausea/vomiting and other complications along with the time taken for discharged in patients undergoing Thoracic Epidural Analgesia (TEA) and General Anaesthesia (GA) for breast oncological surgeries. Background: GA with or without TEA or other postoperative pain-relieving strategies remains the traditional anesthetic technique used for breast oncological procedures. We initiated the use of high segmental TEA for patients undergoing these procedures in our hospital. Methods: Eighty patients undergoing breast oncological procedures performed by one surgical team were randomly allocated into two groups receiving TEA and GA. The Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used for categorical parameters, paired t-test and Student's t-test was used for continuous measurements. Results: In comparison with GA, TEA was associated with lesser incidence of complications of nausea/vomiting. In lumpectomy with axillary node dissection, 1 out of 18 patients (5.55%) in the TEA group had nausea/vomiting, while 11 out of 19 (57.8%) of the GA group had similar symptoms (P < 0.001). The discharge rate for the thoracic epidural group was 12 out of 18 by day 3 (66.6%) while all patients in the GA group required more than 3 days of hospitalization (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Thoracic epidural anesthesia is a safe technique and its use in breast oncological procedures could improve patients' recovery and facilitate their early discharge to home.
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Paramedical training in the armed forces: Need for a paradigm shift
Alhad Anant Pawar, Sheila S Mathai
July-December 2017, 19(2):81-82
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Induction of labor: Our experience
Sushil Chawla, Santosh Kumar Singh, Monica Saraswat, Sakthi Vardhan
July-December 2017, 19(2):96-98
Introduction: Induction of labor is a deliberate attempt to terminate the pregnancy with the aim of vaginal delivery in cases of valid indication. Different methods are being used ranging from nonpharmacological to pharmacological for the same. Induction on demand by patients is also rising in our country. Objectives: The aim of this study is to ascertain the common indications for induction of labor at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study, with the study group being all the patients who underwent induction of labor and the total population including all the women delivering at our center, in 1 year. The induction was done using “Dinoprostone” gel or tablet “Misoprostol”. Results: Postdated pregnancy was the reason for induction of labor in 36% of the patients. Hypertensive disorders and gestational diabetes mellitus are other common conditions requiring induction of labor. Pregnancy following assisted reproductive techniques form an important group requiring induction of labor in present day practice. Conclusion: Hypertensive disorders and postdated pregnancy are the most common indication for induction of labor.
  2,059 264 -
Staged total penile reconstruction using flap prefabrication and arteriovenous loop
Pauline Babu, Pallab Chatterjee, Parli Raghavan Ravi
January-June 2018, 20(1):79-82
Loss of penis due to injury or disease is physically and psychologically devastating to any male. While the technique of penile reconstruction continues to evolve in conjunction with the evolution of flaps in reconstructive surgery, the free tissue transfer using radial artery forearm flap (RAFF) in a single stage is recognized as the most preferred method at present. However, to avoid the complications often seen in such single-stage method, we used a novel two-stage technique for total penile reconstruction in two cases after penile loss. We prefabricated the neophallus in the forearm and constructed saphenofemoral arteriovenous loop in the groin in the first stage to allow all the suture lines to heal and provide for easy and reliable recipient vessels. The neophallus was transferred after 4 weeks and vessel anastomoses done conveniently in the groin with adequate sized vessels with robust inflow. Both the patients recovered well without any need for urinary diversion and quickly attained the ability to pass urine in standing position. We offer that the two-stage method of penile reconstruction using free RAFF is reliable, easy to perform and can avoid many of the complications seen with single-stage reconstruction.
  1,946 163 -
Renal cell carcinoma with inferior vena cava extension: An anesthetic challenge
MK John, Nihar Ameta, Jacob Mathews, Sarvesh Shrivastava
January-June 2017, 19(1):70-71
  1,749 298 -
Medical management of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: A study in Indian population
Amit Kumar Shah, Anand Srivastava, SC Karan
July-December 2018, 20(2):104-110
Introduction: At present, the geriatric population has formed a large clientele for medical services, with an increased incidence of lifestyle diseases. Approach to lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an upcoming challenge, especially with management showing a paradigm shift toward medical management. This study was basically designed to study the outcome of medical management of BPH on Indian population following the recommendations based on recent guidelines on medical management of BPH. Materials and Methods: With a calculated sample size of 131 based on the prevalence of BPH, a total of 170 patients were enrolled, and their complete profile with clinical examination, imaging and International Prostatic Symptom Score details were taken as per proforma and were followed up while on medical management and assessed on a cross-sectional basis at regular intervals. Results: The mean age in the study group was 64.61 years. We recorded that all patients had some formal education. These patients were prescribed α-1ablockers as monotherapy or combination therapy as per the protocol of the study. They showed improvement while on medical management with significant improvement. Adverse reactions of medical management were not significant enough to warrant discontinuation of therapy. Forty-one patients out of 170 underwent surgery for no response or worsening quality of life. This group was further analyzed which revealed that comorbid condition, prostate size, and body mass index had no association with the outcome. Conclusion: There is sufficient evidence to support the paradigm shift in the management of BPH. The present guideline is to initiate medical management with monotherapy for patients with BPH and prostate size <30 g and combination therapy for larger prostate sized >30 g. Surgery is advised for patients who do not respond to medical therapy and for the subgroup of patients with absolute indication for surgery in BPH.
  1,818 181 -
Cerebrospinal fluid leak causing spontaneous intracranial hypotension
MA Mateen, Nihar Ameta, Joydeep Ghosh
July-December 2019, 21(2):186-188
Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is one of the important causes of headache in young and middle-aged and is commonly misdiagnosed in the initial stages. SIH generally results from a spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak usually in the spinal region subsequently leading to headache, usually postural in nature. SIH is characterized by a triad of postural headache, diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging, and low CSF opening pressure of <60 mm of water. Autologous epidural blood patch (EPB) is the treatment of choice in these patients. Here, we present a case of SIH with classical clinical and radiological findings managed appropriately with EBP, leading to complete resolution of the symptoms.
  1,765 50 -
Initiation of COVID-19 testing by cartridge-based nucleic acid amplification test (Cepheid Xpress SARS-CoV-2): Our experience at a zonal hospital
Rajat Shukla, Gurpreet Singh Bhalla
November 2020, 22(3):135-136
  1,792 20 -
Vascular closure device in cardiac cath laboratory: A retrospective observational study
Ravi Kalra, R Ananthakrishnan, Sudhir Joshi, Jnanaprakash B Karanth
January-June 2018, 20(1):4-8
Objective: This study is to share our experience of using vascular closure device (VCD) after anterograde femoral arterial access at cardiac cath lab. Background: Vascular access site management is crucial to safe, efficient, comfortable, and cost-effective diagnostic or interventional percutaneous cardiac procedures. As per the literature, femoral artery access site complications following angiographic procedures range from 1% to 5%. The Angioseal VCD has been shown to be safe and effective in reducing the time to hemostasis following angiographic or other cardiac interventional procedures. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective, observational study carried out at a tertiary care hospital of the Armed Forces. All patients in whom Angioseal (St. Jude Medical) were deployed after undergoing either diagnostic coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) through common femoral artery access. All patients from January 2011 to December 2016 in whom VCD was either deployed or attempted were included in the study. Results: A total of 16245 patients were taken up for femoral access for diagnostic procedures and PCI from 2011 to 2016. We observed 98.52% success rate with Angioseal and a mere 1.48% complication rate. Out of the complications observed, only 2 (0.13%) patients had the serious complication of limb ischemia rest were all minor complications. Conclusion: Our observations and experience with the Angioseal VCD are a safe, efficient, and resulting in more favorable patient outcomes.
  1,551 210 -
Analysis of normal retinal nerve fiber layer thickness by age and sex using spectral domain tomography
R Aiswarya, Hemant Singh Trehan
January-June 2017, 19(1):11-14
Background: To analyze the nerve fiber layer thickness in a heterogeneous Indian population according to age and sex and to compare this parameter to published normative data on the Caucasian population to better understand the racial differences. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 patients of both gender belonging to various age groups were evaluated using Cirrus HD optical coherence tomography (OCT), Carl Zeiss, Meditec, Dublin. The results were evaluated and compared to determine the normal retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) and its variations with age and sex. Results: Average nerve fiber thickness along the 3.4 mm diameter circle around the optic nerve head was approximately 90.57 ± 11.59 μm. There was no significant difference seen between males and females for mean, quadrant, and clockwise RNFLT. This was the same in all the subgroups of our study. Conclusions: Our results provide the variations of RNFL in Indian population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in our country done with a high sample size in the Cirrus HD-OCT machine.
  1,541 180 1
Role of otoacoustic emissions in the early detection and prevention of ototoxicity
Anil Kaul, Tarun Malhotra, Shazia Khan
January-June 2018, 20(1):13-17
Introduction: Evaluating Otoacoustic Emissions (OAEs) is one of the audiological methods for ototoxicity monitoring. The absence of OAEs indicates cochlear damage. The aim of this study was to study the usefulness of OAEs in early detection and prevention of ototoxicity. Materials and Methods: A prospective, comparative study was conducted to evaluate Transient-Evoked OAEs (TEOAEs) and Distortion-Product OAEs (DPOAEs) as they relate to Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA) in cases of ototoxicity. Hearing assessments of study group of 55 individuals exposed to ototoxic drugs were evaluated and compared at regular intervals, within the group and with control group of 25 individuals using PTA, TEOAEs, and DPOAEs. The abnormal OAE responses were calculated as predictive of significant changes in PTA thresholds. Student's t-test (independent samples, two-tailed) and ANOVA used for analysis. Results: PTA thresholds in the study group remained unaffected in the first three follow-ups whereas TPOAEs and DPOAEs were both found affected at the third follow-up, in significant number of ears in the study group. Significantly lower PTA thresholds were found in study group only at the fourth follow-up. Conclusions: Changes in TEOAEs and DPOAEs precede changes in PTA thresholds in ototoxicity and have high sensitivity and specificity in predicting hearing loss in such cases.
  1,480 235 -
Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria isolated from cases of surgical site infections by microbroth dilution method at a Tertiary Care Center
Raghu Sriram, Prasanna Sarangan
January-June 2017, 19(1):6-10
Aim: The study was carried out to ascertain antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) isolated from cases of surgical site infections from May 2013 to May 2014 at a tertiary care center in Pune. Materials and Methods: This study included the isolation of RGM from surgical site infections from May 2013 to May 2014 at a tertiary care center in Pune. The specimens were processed for microscopy (Ziehl–Neelsen stain) and culture (Lowenstein–Jensen media) using conventional methods. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of each of the isolates were determined by microbroth dilution, using Sensititre RAPMYCO manufactured by the firm TREK Diagnostic Systems from Thermo Scientific. Interpretations of results were done as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M24-A. Results: Of the RGM isolated, Mycobacterium abscessus was the predominant isolate followed by Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium chelonae. Of the 102 isolates, 64 (53.3%) were M. abscessus, 30 (25%) were M. fortuitum, 8 (6.67%) were M. chelonae, and 18 (15%) were other atypical Mycobacterium species. All 102 isolates of RGM were tested for antibiotic susceptibility testing by microbroth dilution. M. fortuitum and M. chelonae were sensitive to most of the antibiotics tested with few exceptions. All isolates (M. fortuitum and M. chelonae) were resistant to cefoxitin except few M. abscessus. Maximum resistance was seen with M. abscessus and they were sensitive to amikacin, tobramycin, tigecycline, and clarithromycin only. Out of 64 isolates, 32 (50%) were resistant to linezolid and imipenem. Conclusions: This study was carried out to highlight the importance of RGM and their susceptibility testing in all clinical microbiology laboratories.
  1,458 256 -
The evolution and future of combat casualty care
Bipin Puri
January-June 2017, 19(1):1-3
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